Foreign Players and Regulatory Grey Spots
Fisheries management is subject to the rule of the state governing the body of water where the fishery is located. One of the issues that makes fishing so hard to properly regulate and overfishing so difficult to control is illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU), also dubbed 'pirate fishing' whereby foreign vessels illegally fish within another state's waters; and/or do not report or underreport their catch. WWF estimates that the illegal fishing trade is worth between 10 and 23.5 billion USD per year.
The UN's International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (IPOA-IUU) is an attempt to offer guidelines for sanctions against such activities however, combatting IUU requires a global effort and some argue that the sanctions put forward by the IPOA-IUU are not strong enough to deter pirate fishing altogether.
One example of how fishing regulations are exploited is India's Letter of Permit scheme, run by the country's Ministry of Agriculture, which allows local fishermen to use foreign fishing vessels to access deeper and wider fisheries than normal so long as the vessel is also registered with an Indian authority.
The result of this has seen a group of foreign fishing companies enter Indian waters with forged registration paperwork and transfer their catch in the area to carrier vessels while still on the water in order to circumvent the mandate of the fish being brought back to Indian shores, costing the local industry millions in lost revenue.
It is not just a country's economy and food supplies that are threatened when foreign vessels illegally fish from someone else's pool. The impact on people who rely on fishing for their livelihoods can be huge. Some have linked the rise in Somali piracy in the '90s to overfishing after foreign trawlers entered Somali waters, following civil war and the collapse of government, and illegally fished, which had a devastating effect on Somali fishermen. As a partial result of this, pirate gangs formed to ward off foreign vessels. While some question just how much of a role this may have played, many agree that the blow to people's livelihoods could have created fertile ground for the pirate movement to rise up.
Changing the Tide
With supply unable to meet demand, new, more sustainable approaches to fishing must be implemented. Activists are calling for more stringent capping quotas on the amount of allowed fish per haul, while surveillance and sustainable aquaculture could also have a role to play.
A number of technological applications are being introduced to help curb overfishing, namely by monitoring certain areas to keep tabs on illegal fishing as well as new techniques to minimise bycatch. In 2014 Google teamed up with Oceana and SkyTruth to launch the Global Fishing Watch project, an interactive web tool that allows members of the public to check up on trackable fishing activity in the ocean.
Stronger Enforcement of Capping and Quotas
A number of fisheries already operate under imposed quotas, or regulated catch allotments or capped periods of time within which to fish, however, due to lack of proper monitoring in some parts, it can be easy for fishermen to ignore these quotas or exploit regulatory loopholes in favour of catching more fish. World Ocean Review outlines one example where fishermen were able to circumvent laws imposed in the Pacific halibut fishery, statting that ''...at the end of the 1980s, fishing was only permitted for three days a year. In practice, during this very short fishing season, a vast fishing fleet was deployed and caught the same quantity of fish as had previously been harvested in an entire year.'' In order for caps and quotas to work effectively, a concerted effort is required from authorities to ensure that those out on the water play by the rules.
Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) placed emphasis on the need for ecosystem-based fisheries management back in 1995, as concern about depleting fish numbers began to cause ripples through the industry.
An ecosystem-based approach dictates that all aspects of the industry be reassessed to determine whether methods comply with sustainability goals. Knowledge of and respect for the integrated nature of creatures and organisms in any marine ecosystem forms the crux of an ecosystem-based approach, drawing the focus away from single, commercially-valuable species in any region and encouraging fishermen to view their catchment areas as diverse, ecological communities that must be maintained. Experts argue that any approach to sustainable fisheries management should encompass all human-related activities that occur at sea, such as oil spills, sewage disposal and toxic waste dumping.
Such an approach requires stringent government or related authority monitoring to ensure workers adhere to guidelines. The government’s approach thus far has focused on the economic factor and it has pushed for more advanced techniques to increase output. As tests continue to show that fish numbers are depleting (some rapidly), the move forward must take priority away from economic goals and focus primarily on fishing methods that are sustainable.
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